Unity使用WWW类调用Restful接口

1 BEGIN

维基百科,自由的百科全书

具象状态传输(英文:Representational State Transfer,简称REST)是Roy Thomas Fielding博士于2000年在他的博士论文 "Architectural Styles and the Design of Network-based Software Architectures" 中提出来的一种万维网软件架构风格。
目前在三种主流的Web服务实现方案中,因为REST模式与复杂的SOAP和XML-RPC相比更加简洁,越来越多的web服务开始采用REST风格设计和实现。例如,Amazon.com提供接近REST风格的Web服务执行图书查询;雅虎提供的Web服务也是REST风格的。

RESTful API是目前比较成熟的一套互联网应用程序的API设计理论。

2 简单的Get请求

基本http的GET请求需要在一个协程中new一个WWW类并传入准确的API地址,执行 yield return www 就会等待服务器的返回结果,之后才开始执行以后的代码。 Get请求的API参数需要加入到API的地址中去,格式 URL+?key1=value1&key2=value2

public class NewBehaviourScript : MonoBehaviour {

    // Use this for initialization
    void Start () {
        StartCoroutine (IEHttpGet());

    }

    IEnumerator IEHttpGet()
    {
        //print ("get url " + fullUrl);
        WWW www = new WWW("http://127.0.0.1:6789/bmi");
        yield return www;

        if (www.error != null) {
            Debug.LogError (www.error);
        } 

        Debug.Log (www.text);
    }
}

3 简单的Post请求

这份代码使用的是JSON格式的数据。POST请求需要一个API地址,请求的HTTP头部需要加入头信息表明是json格式的数据,发送的josn数据格式化为字符串并转化为字节数据。这里使用的JSON解析库是MiniJSON。

using UnityEngine;
using System.Collections;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using MiniJSON;

public class NewBehaviourScript : MonoBehaviour {

    // Use this for initialization
    void Start () {
        StartCoroutine (IEPost());

    }

    IEnumerator IEPost()
    {
        string fullUrl = "http://127.0.0.1:6789/bmi";

        //加入http 头信息
        Dictionary<string,string> JsonDic = new Dictionary<string,string> ();  
        JsonDic.Add ("Content-Type", "application/json");

        //请求的Json数据
        Dictionary<string,string> UserDic = new Dictionary<string, string> ();
        UserDic ["height"] = "170";
        UserDic ["weight"] = "62";
        string data = Json.Serialize (UserDic);

        //转换为字节
        byte[] post_data;  
        post_data = System.Text.UTF8Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes (data);  

        WWW www = new WWW (fullUrl, post_data, JsonDic);
        yield return www;

        if (www.error != null) {
            Debug.LogError ("error:" + www.error);
        } 
        Debug.Log (www.text);
    }
}

4 带安全验证的Get/Post请求

对于需要使用Base Auth 安全验证的RESTful API,需要在http的请求信息中加入用户名称和用户帐号信息,并进行编码转化。

新建一个字典数据,加入编码说明和帐号信息。

Dictionary<string,string> AuthDic = new Dictionary<string,string> ();  // auth header
AuthDic.Add("Content-Type", "application/json");
string NameAndPw = "UserName" + ":" + "Password";
AuthDic.Add("Authorization", "Basic " + System.Convert.ToBase64String(System.Text.Encoding.ASCII.GetBytes(NameAndPw)) );

完整的安全验证的POST请求

IEnumerator IEPost()
    {
        string fullUrl = "http://127.0.0.1:6789/bmi";

        Dictionary<string,string> AuthDic = new Dictionary<string,string> ();  // auth header
        AuthDic.Add("Content-Type", "application/json");
        string NameAndPw = "UserName" + ":" + "Password";
        AuthDic.Add("Authorization", "Basic " + System.Convert.ToBase64String(System.Text.Encoding.ASCII.GetBytes(NameAndPw)) );

        //请求的Json数据
        Dictionary<string,string> UserDic = new Dictionary<string, string> ();
        UserDic ["height"] = "170";
        UserDic ["weight"] = "62";
        string data = Json.Serialize (UserDic);

        //转换为字节
        byte[] post_data;  
        post_data = System.Text.UTF8Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes (data);  

        WWW www = new WWW (fullUrl, post_data, AuthDic);
        yield return www;

        if (www.error != null) {
            Debug.LogError ("error:" + www.error);
        } 
        Debug.Log (www.text);
    }

5 封装成带回调函数的请求

对于多次的http请求,如果编写多份协程来处理会显得计较麻烦。这里把HTTP的请求封装成一个回调函数。得到服务器返回的数据则马上调用回调函数进行处理。

以下的http请求的的封装。

using UnityEngine;
using System.Collections;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System;

/// <summary>
/// Http Request SDK 
/// </summary>
namespace RestHttpAPI
{
public class HttpAPI : MonoBehaviour {

        private static HttpAPI _instacne=null;
        private HttpAPI()
        {
        }

        public static HttpAPI Instance{
            get{
                if(_instacne == null )
                {
                    Debug.LogError("Awake error");
                }
                return _instacne ;
            }
        }

        void Awake () {
            DontDestroyOnLoad (gameObject);
            HttpAPI._instacne = gameObject.GetComponent<HttpAPI> ();   

            JsonDic.Add("Content-Type", "application/json");

            AuthDic.Add("Content-Type", "application/json");
            string NameAndPw = UserName + ":" + Password;
            AuthDic.Add("Authorization", "Basic " + System.Convert.ToBase64String(System.Text.Encoding.ASCII.GetBytes(NameAndPw)) );

        }

        public string ipAdr="https://127.0.0.1:5000";
        public string ver = "";
        Dictionary<string,string> AuthDic = new Dictionary<string,string> ();  // auth header
        Dictionary<string,string> JsonDic = new Dictionary<string,string> ();  // json parser header

        public string UserName="";
        public string Password="";

        /// <summary>
        /// Get Method with callback
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="url">URL.</param>
        /// <param name="callBack">Call back.</param>
        public void Get(string url,Action<string,string> callBack=null)
        {
            StartCoroutine ( IEHttpGet(this.ipAdr+url,callBack));
        }
        IEnumerator IEHttpGet(string fullUrl,Action<string,string> callBack)
        {
            //print ("get url " + fullUrl);
            WWW www = new WWW(fullUrl);
            yield return www;

            if (www.error != null) {
                Debug.LogError (www.error);
            } 

            if(callBack != null)
               callBack (www.text,www.error);
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Get Method with callback and  BaseAuth
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="url">URL.</param>
        /// <param name="callBack">Call back.</param>
        public void GetAuth(string url,Action<string,string> callBack=null)
        {
            StartCoroutine (IEGetAuth(url,callBack));
        }
        IEnumerator IEGetAuth(string url,Action<string,string> callBack=null)
        {

            string fullUrl = this.ipAdr + url;

            WWW www = new WWW(fullUrl,null,AuthDic);
            yield return www;

            if (www.error != null) {
                Debug.LogError ("error:"+www.error);
            } 

            if(callBack != null)
                callBack (www.text,www.error);
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Post the specified url and callBack.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="url">URL.</param>
        /// <param name="callBack">Call back.</param>
        public void Post(string url,Action<string,string> callBack=null)
        {
            StartCoroutine (IEPost (url, callBack));
        }
        IEnumerator IEPost(string url,Action<string,string> callBack=null)
        {
            string fullUrl = this.ipAdr + url;

            WWWForm wf = new WWWForm ();
            wf.AddField ("K","v");

            WWW www = new WWW(fullUrl,wf);
            yield return www;

            if (www.error != null) {
                Debug.LogError ("error:"+www.error);
            }

            if(callBack != null)
                callBack (www.text,www.error);
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Post the specified url, data and callBack.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="url">URL.</param>
        /// <param name="data">Data.</param>
        /// <param name="callBack">Call back.</param>
        public void Post(string url,string data, Action<string,string> callBack=null)
        {
            StartCoroutine (IEPost(url,data,callBack));
        }
        IEnumerator IEPost(string url,string data, Action<string,string> callBack=null)
        {
            string fullUrl = this.ipAdr + url;

            byte[] post_data;  
            post_data = System.Text.UTF8Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(data);  

            WWW www = new WWW(fullUrl,post_data,JsonDic);
            yield return www;

            if (www.error != null) {
                Debug.LogError ("error:"+www.error);
            } 
            if(callBack != null)
                callBack (www.text,www.error);
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Posts the auth.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="url">URL.</param>
        /// <param name="data">Data.</param>
        /// <param name="callBack">Call back.</param>
        public void PostAuth(string url,string data, Action<string,string> callBack=null)
        {
            StartCoroutine (IEPostAuth(url,data,callBack));
        }
        IEnumerator IEPostAuth(string url,string data, Action<string,string> callBack=null)
        {
            string fullUrl = this.ipAdr + url;

            byte[] post_data;  
            post_data = System.Text.UTF8Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(data);  

            WWW www = new WWW(fullUrl,post_data,AuthDic);
            yield return www;

            if (www.error != null) {
                Debug.LogError ("error:"+www.error);
            }

            if(callBack != null)
                callBack (www.text,www.error);
        }

}

}

6 使用示例

基于以上的RestHttpAPI可以使用简单的代码调用RESTful API。

//设置API的网络地址
HttpAPI.Instance.ipAdr = "https://127.0.0.1:5000";
HttpAPI.Instance.UserName = "b";
HttpAPI.Instance.Password = "123";

//普通的Get POST 请求
HttpAPI.Instance.Get ("/hello",(resp,error)=>{print(resp+" "+error);});
HttpAPI.Instance.Post ("/hello",(resp,error)=>{print(resp+" "+error);});

//带安全验证的GET请求
HttpAPI.Instance.GetAuth ("/test",(resp,error)=>{print(resp+" "+error);});

//POST请求
Dictionary<string,string> UserDic = new Dictionary<string, string> ();
UserDic["username"]="you";
UserDic["password"]="123";
string str = Json.Serialize(UserDic);
HttpAPI.Instance.Post ("/user/newUser", str, (resp,error) => {
    print (resp + " " + error);}
);

//带安装验证的POST 请求
Dictionary<string,string> UserDic = new Dictionary<string, string> ();
UserDic["appname"]="aote2";
UserDic["channel"]="haha";
UserDic["count"]="180";
string str = Json.Serialize(UserDic);
HttpAPI.Instance.PostAuth("/generateCode", str, (resp,error) => {
    print (resp + " " + error);}
);

7 参考资料

  1. http://www.ruanyifeng.com/blog/2014/05/restful_api.html
  2. https://docs.unity3d.com/ScriptReference/WWW.html

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